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Small HydroPower Handbook

A Guide to Understanding and Constructing  Your Own Small Hydro Project













INTRODUCTION (Chapter 1 Index)

Why Small Hydro

British Columbia offers enormous small hydro potential to its inhabitants: about 2400 MW, with 550 sites near the grid. Small Hydro is part of the history of British Columbia. Many early mills, mines and towns built some form of power generation from small hydro, in the late 19th and early 20th centuries; and waterwheels were used much earlier - in Ashcroft, in 1863, for example. Most of these old sites have fallen into disuse by now - rendered uneconomic in the 1950's by the availability of cheaper electricity through an expanding, province-wide grid; and by the availability of portable, flexible, low cost diesel generators. Diesel generators are still cheap to buy - but the rise in the cost of oil has made them expensive to operate. And the provinces electrical grid, while extensive, does not include a number of small communities, resource-based businesses, farmers, and lodge owners: people in out of the way locations who are paying an enormous cost for their independent way of life. Such people are taking another look at water power, because it offers a stable, inflation-proof source of electricity, using proven technology. Small hydro installations have, historically, been cheap to run but expensive to build. That is changing now, with smaller, lighter, and higher speed turbine equipment, lower cost electronic speed and load control systems, and inexpensive plastic piping. Capital investments are still higher than investing in diesel equipment of comparable capacity; but the long life and low operating costs of small hydro make it an attractive investment for many applications. Examples of such installations, built in B.C. during the past few years, include: Glacier Park (150 kW); Hoeya Hilton (37 kW); Nimmo Bay (40 kW); Hasty Creek (37 kW); Klemtu (650 kW); Kingcome (75 kW); and Rendell Creek Ranch. Some very small, and very successful units have been installed by entrepreneurs - a farmer in the Pemberton Valley, for example (25 kW). other, larger units, have been build by entrepreneurs who then sell power on contract to a resource industry - Lancaster Resources (now Synex) at Moses Inlet, selling to Crown Lumber. There are business opportunities in small hydro - and a number of people are catching on.

Purpose of the Manual

This book is written to assist people who are interested in developing a small hydro opportunity. It will be especially useful to people with small sites that would not justify the expense of extensive professional engineering services. Even with small sites, such services may be advisable if you have conditions you do not fully understand. The book will provide you with the information you need to: - evaluate the potential of a small hydro site; - lay out the site; - apply for necessary licences and permits; - get financing; - select and install equipment and - understand the equipment, so that you can operate and maintain the system yourself. The emphasis in the book is on doing as much as possible yourself, thus keeping capital costs as low as possible. However, advice on seeking professional help is also included - and the information contained in these chapters will be invaluable to you in dealing with any consultants and contractors you hire. Actual construction details are not included; general guidelines are given, along with pointers on what help can be expected from a construction contractor. The book does not assume any previous acquaintance with the subject. mathematical procedures are generally limited to multiplication and division for the fundamentals. (more sophisticated procedures may yield greater accuracy, but the simpler procedures outlined here should be sufficient for the scope of projects intended.) A hydro turbine generator can by very small, like the alternator for a car (c. 500 Watts); or it can be very large, like the units at the Revelstoke Dam (several thousands of millions of Watts). microhydro (1-100 kW) and mini-hydro plants (100 kW to 5 MW) are the smallest of the turbine generator units. This handbook is aimed mainly at installations of less than 500 kW, although it covers licensing requirements up to 20 mw. The writers of the chapters that follow are all experts in their fields, and have all written as clearly and simply as possible. It will take time and study, however, to thoroughly understand each section of the book especially the charts, tables, and graphs. The effort will pay off: your chances of bringing a project to a successful completion, producing reliable energy year after year, and significantly improving your cash flow, will be greatly enhanced.

Cost of Development

Costs for smally hydro installations vary considerably, because sites, conditions and sizes are all different. In 1985, the typical development can range from $1,500 to $5,000 per installed kW. This would mean an investment of from $6,000 to $20,000 for the "typical" simple family home, which requires a peak demand of 5 kW. (If that home were using electric heating, the demand would be from 12-20 kW.) This handbook shows how to estimate installation cost, and how to balance design tradeoffs, cost, and projected energy production. You can significantly reduce costs by clever management, procurement, and hard work. The system at Rendell Creek Ranch cost only $25,000 for a 150 kW system - less than $200 per kW - because the community did most of the work itself and was able to buy and rebuild used equipment. In approaching costs, remember that there are two basic types of developers: those who are interested in generating to meet only their own needs, regardless of the site's potential; and those who want to get as much as possible out of the site. Costs for the former developer will generally be lower because the system will be smaller, and geared both to minimum requirements and minimum flow. Investment for the latter will be higher, but the per kW cost may be less.

Organization of the Manual

You are encouraged to peruse the book and gain a general knowledge of its contents before starting actual development. Chapters One, Two and Three represent the major steps for any site development. Chapter Four then treats dams, intakes, penstock, turbines and all equipment associated with the manufacture of a small hydro site, in considerable detail. Chapter Five serves as a guide to developers on the legal aspects of permits, licences and insurance. This is a weighty section, but an understanding of the requirements is essential. Chapter Six, on Economics and Financing, takes you through the economic feasibility of the project and helps you decide on the economics of the project. Chapter Seven is subtitled "Getting Started". It gives the developer some practical tips on the many logistical steps necessary to carry through with the project, once it is designed. It will help get the project started and help you make sure it is completed. Chapters Eight and Nine are specialized chapters on Low Head and Cold Weather Considerations. If you are working under either of these constraints, these chapters should be read carefully. Chapter 10 outlines the requirements for setting up a utility, should you wish to sell your surplus power.


1.1 ..........Introduction

1.2 ..........Your Power Requirements

1.3 ..........Power and Energy Definitions

1.4 ..........Data Collection

1.5 ..........Installations

1.6 ..........Available Power and Energy

1.7 ..........Advisors

1.8 ..........Project Costs

1.9 ..........Project Worth

1.10 ..........Continued Planning

1.11 ..........Project Data Summary



1.1 ..........Introduction (Back)

Perhaps you are living close to a stream and you are considering building a small hydro project on it. Or perhaps you are starting to plan a project and you are looking for a suitable stream. In either case this chapter will help you. Chapter One covers: (a) The fundamentals of providing electrical energy from water; (b) the process of selecting a suitable stream and a site for a hydro project; (c) the simple calculations for helping you to decide whether you should continue planning your project, or whether you should start looking for some other way of getting electricity; and (d) the costs, procedures and time requirements of hiring an engineer to do the preliminary work. Probably your most valuable experience is to have lived next to a stream for several years and to have noted the fluctuations in its flow: how high and low it can go, how soon it reacts to a rainstorm, and how the stream changes its course when in flood. However, without this background knowledge you will still be able to build a good hydro project. To help you decide whether or not to continue with your the project, you will be asked to (a) estimate the power you need; (b) estimate the streamflow available; (c) measure or estimate the head available on the stream; (d) estimate the power and energy available from the stream; (e) make a preliminary layout of your project; (f) make a preliminary estimate of the cost of your project; and (g) decide: "Is your project worth pursuing?" Each time you make an estimate or calculation, you should enter it in Table 1.3, "Project Data Summary" at the end of this chapter. If you have already decided to continue planning, you should still skim through this Chapter and check that you have the data listed under all the headings in Table 1.3.

1.2 ..........Your Power Requirements (Back)

First, you need to estimate how much power and energy you use at present, and how much you will use, say, ten years from now. Normally some degree of load management is used in mini-hydro plants. The loads shown in Table 1.1 assume some degree of load management.

1.2.2 Load Estimates

An approximate estimate of the load will do at this stage. A more accurate estimate will be made in Chapter 3. Using Table 1.1 to estimate your peak winter and summer loads, select a value within the ranges given. These ranges indicate the difference in loads due to different living styles and different climates. Take account of the appliances you have, compared to those listed in the table, and the conservation or extravagance in your use of electricity. Also consider the climate where you live: you will use more electricity in the interior and northern parts of B.C. than you will on the coast, on Vancouver Island, or in the Lower Mainland. Following the example below, write down your expected future peak load value for the winter (November-April) and summer (July-October). Use a future of 10 years time or whatever time span you wish to consider for the hydro plant. If you want to make a more detailed estimate, turn to the section on "Power and Energy Requirements" in Chapter 3. Do this only if you want to learn more about load management: it gets quite complicated. Example: A single family house with 2 bedrooms and workshop - electric lights, washer, drier, fridge, freezer, kitchen appliances (no oil, propane or wood cooking stove), baseboard and hot water heating, table saw, small hand tools. From Table 1.1: (In this example case 3B, a 3 bedroom house without back-up for heating, is used to allow for additions in the future.) Example Your Expected Loads Winter Maximum Load 12 kW ................ kW Summer Maximum Load 5 kW ................ kW (Write these values at the top of Table 1.3)

1.2.3 Energy Conservation

Do you conserve energy as much as you can? Have you considered the following ways of reducing your energy consumption, and thereby reducing your costs? - upgrading insulation in basements, floors, walls, cedilings and attic; - adding storm windows or double or triple glazing; - reducing air leaks by caulking and weatherstripping round dorrs and windows; - servicing the oil or propane furnace and water heater; - insulating the hot water tank and pipes;

1.3 ..........Power and Energy Definitions (Back)

The methods for calculating power and energy that are available from a stream are covered in this section.

1.3.1 ..........Power

The calculation of the actual power from your stream is covered in Section 1.6, after you have measured or estimated the flow and head. The theoretical power equation (Equation 1-1) is P= Q x H x e x 9.81 Kilowatts (kW) (1-1) Where: P = Power at the generator terminal, in kilowatts (kW). Q = Flow in pipeline, in cubic metres per second (m3/s). H = The gross head from the pipeline intake to the tailwater, in metres (m) (see Figure 1.2). e = The efficiency of the plant, considering head loss in the pipeline and the efficiency of the turbine and generator, expressed by a decimal (ie 85% efficiency 0.85) 9.81 = Constant for converting flow and head to kilowatts. All power systems produce less power than is theoretically available. The losses in a hydro plant are: (a) losses in energy caused by flow disturbances at the intake to the pipeline, friction in the pipeline, and further flow disturbances at valves and bends; and (b) losses of power caused by friction and design inefficiencies in the turbine and generator. The energy losses in the pipeline and at valves and bends, are called head losses: they represent the difference between the gross head and the net head that is available at the turbine (see Figure 1.2). The head losses in the pipeline could range from 5 percent to 15 percent of the gross head, . depending on the length of the pipeline and the velocity of the flow. The maximum turbine efficiency could range from 80 percent to 90 percent depending on the type of turbine, and the generator efficiency will be about 90 percent. At this stage in the planning of your hydro plant, the head losses can be combined with the losses in the tubine and generator, and an overall plant efficiency of 60 percent (or e = 0.60) can be used. Using e = 0.60 in Equation 1-1, the actual power output at the generator can be calculated from the following Equation 1-2: P x H x 5.9 (kW) (1-2) The Power Output Nomograph in Figure 1.3 enables you to make quick estimates of power, flow or head. Example: Suppose you know the lowest flow (discharge) in the stream (say 0.1 M3/s or 100 L/s), and you know where to put the intake and powerhouse so you can estimate the head (say 10 m). Example Your Values Flow 100 L/s L/s Head 10 m M In Figure 1.3 mark a point (in pencil) at a flow of 100 L/s on the DISCHARGE (left) scale; on the HEAD (right) scale mark a point at a head of 10 m. Draw a straight line between the two points and where this line intersects the POWER (middle) scale is the estimated power, in this case 5.9 kW. Power 5:9 kw' kW If you have been using your own values of flow and head, and find that the power output is not enough for your power requirements, don't worry: you're just trying out the nomograph. Later in this chapter you will make the proper calculations. Other ways of using the nomograph are: (a) to find the necessary flow, provided you know your power requirements and can estimate the head available on the stream. Extend a straight line from the HEAD scale through the POWER output scale and onto the DISCHARGE scale, or, (b) to find the necessary head, provided you know your power requirements and can estimate the minimum flow in the stream. 1-6 1.3.2 Energy The equation to calculate energy is E = P x time Where: E = Energy, in kilowatt - hours (kW.h) P = Power, in kilowatts kW Time = Time while power is generated or used Example: If you run a 1000 watt (1 kW) electric heater for 5 hours you use 5 kW.h of energy.

1.4 ..........Data Collection (Back)

Streamflow, head and pipeline length must be estimated or measured, before you can calculate the power that could be developed from a stream. Streamflow is the most difficult to measure or estimate. However you should have an understanding of its sources, its fluctuations and flow measurements or estimates.

1.4.1 Streamflow

Streamflow comes from either rain or melting snow, but not all the rain or melting snow immediately becomes streamflow. There are losses caused by evaporation from the ground surface, transpiration by the vegetation whose roots have absorbed moisture from the ground and from seepage or surface water into the ground to become groundwater. This groundwater can take weeks or months to appear as streamflow, and is therefore not available for power immediately after rain or snowmelt. However, this groundwater is important, the major component of the streamflow during dry periods in the summer or winter. A hydro project should be designed for these dry, low flow periods. It is advised that you check both Fisheries and Water Licenses statutes of the creek prior to doing much work, it might belong to someone else.

Streamflow Fluctuations

We all know that streamflow fluctuates, often daily, always seasonally and yearly. To visualise these fluctuations, values of flow are plotted against time, as shown on Figure 1.4 (A and B) these plots are called hydrographs. In Figures 1.4.A and 1.4B, hydrographs of flows in 1980 are shown for six rivers in five different parts of B.C. Notice the different patterns of flow in different parts of the province. The simplest pattern is for Beatton Creek in southeast Interior (Figure 1.4A): (a) low flows in January to March (cold weather). (b) rapidly increasing flows in April (snowmelt). (c) high, erratic flows in May and June (snowmelt plus rain). steadily decreasing flows in July and August (no further snowmelt). (d) low flows again through the winter. Brouse Creek (Figure 1.4A), in the same area as Beatton Creek, is much smaller. The pattern for these two creeks is similar except that in Brouse Creek the major snowmelt period is in May only. Moving westward to the Coquihala River (Figure 1.4A), the effect of winter rain is reflected in the extremely sharp peaks in December. A pronounced snowmelt period lasted from April until June, and prolonged low flow periods occurred in January and February and again between August and October. In the North, the Cottonwood River hydrograph (Figure 1.4B) shows the prolonged low flows caused by low temperatures from December through to the end of April. West of the Coast Mountains, the Little Wedeene River hydrograph (Figure 1.4B) shows the effect of heavy rain from September to December. The snowmelt period, April to June is not so obvious because of the erratic rain peaks superimposed. Short periods of low flows occurred in most months January - March and August - October. In the Northern part of Vancouver Island, the pattern of flows for the Ucona River is less distinct; erratic flows during the winter (rain and snowmelt), fairly steady flows April - June (snowmelt), then decreasing flows to September (little rain). Knowing these patterns will help you choose the right time of year to measure low flows and average flows. You will also recognize the relation between low, average and high flows; this will enable you to check the magnitude of your measurements or estimates.

Streamflow Measurements and Estimates While many larger streams and rivers in B.C. have gauges installed by Federal or Provincial Government agencies, it is unlikely that there will be a gauge on your stream. You will probably have to measure or estimate the flow. There are several ways to measure flow: 1-8 (a) use a float to measure velocity and a level and tape to measure the stream cross-section, (b) construct a weir (A weir is a low dam over which the water flows) across the stream and measure water levels or, (c) use a flow-meter to measure velocity, and a level and tape to measure the stream cross-section. using a float is the easiest but the least accurate method. Building a weir or using a flow-meter are the best methods for establishing a semi-permanent measuring station to obtain flows for several months or years. At this stage in the planning process, you should use the float method described in Supplement 1 . 1 (at end of this chapter). What flows should be measured? This will depend on the amount of water the hydro plant will take from the stream compared to the minimum flow in the stream. You need to get an overall picture of the variations in the flow of the stream. But the lowest flow is usually the most important because it can limit the maximum power that can be produced. At this stage, you don't know how much flow the hydro plant will take. But it is helpful, when deciding what stream flow to measure, to keep in mind three situations: 1. The stream is large and only a small portion of the lowest f low is needed for your hydro plant. If you know that you will always have enough water for the plant. You don't have to measure the flow; you can go onto the next section on "Head", however, if in doubt at all measure the flow. Streamflow is difficult to eyeball. 2. The minimum flow in the stream is about equal to or is slightly more than the flow needed to produce maximum power. You should measure the lowest flow, then estimate the minimum flow that can be expected in the stream: this is explained later. 3. The minimum flow in the stream is less than the flow needed to produce maximum power, and water will have to be stored for part of the year (water storage is discussed in Section 1.6.3), or a diesel generator will have to be used when the flow is low. In this case, you need to know the low and average flows. You should measure the lowest flow you can and also the average flow, several times. If the stream dries in the summer or winter, measure the lowest flow about one month before it normally dries. Measure the flow when it is low and/or average, according to the three guidelines above. Make several measurements on different days.

1.5........ INSTALLATIONS (Back)

This is the time to decide on a preliminary arrangement for your hydro project: The locations of the intake, dam, pipeline and powerhouse: and the type of turbine needed. If possible, get a map of the area from a government office, a local logging company or a forester with the Ministry of Forests maps, and where to get them are discussed in Supplement 2.1 at the end of Chapter 3). Draw on the map the intake, dam, pipeline, powerhouse, and transmission line. This will help you define the layout and help you describe the project to someone else, such as a small hydro owner, a bank manager, a person in the Water Rights Branch office:

To help you decide on a layout, the following considerations will be covered in this section:

(a) run-of-river versus storage projects;

(b) typical project layouts;

(c) project structures ie. dam, weir, intake, canal, pipeline, powerhouse, tailrace,-

(d) to suitable turbines (Cross-flow, Francis and Pelton turbines) for love, medium and high head projects;

(e) existing dams and;

(f) transmission lines.

1.5.1 Run-of-River versus Storage Projects

A run-of-river project is built to use some or most of the flow in a stream depending upon the flow throughout the year. No attempt is made to store water for the dry periods. A run-of-river project would not normally have a dam, other than an intake weir, which is a very low structure at the intake. The intake weir keeps the water in the stream high enough to fill the pipe at all times.

A storage project on the other hand, has a dam, which creates a water storage reservoir to maintain flow in the stream during low flow periods. The intake to the pipeline might be part of the dam or separate from it, depending on the location of the pipeline.

1.5.2 Project Layouts

The layouts shown in Figure 1.5 are typical of most projects that would be built in B.C.

Layout #1 is the simplest, with a weir or low dam across the stream, an intake to the pipeline, the pipeline, powerhouse and tailrace channel (each structure is described in more detail in Section 1.5.3). The weir forms a pond to ensure that there is always water above the pipe at the intake; the pipeline carries the water, under pressure, to the turbine in the powerhouse; the tailrace channel carries the water from the turbine back into the stream, or into a lake or the sea.

Layout #2 illustrates a possible cost-saving arrangement, whereby a canal or low-pressure pipeline is built to contour around a hillside, and a shorter high-pressure pipeline, called a penstock, is used.

Layout #3 shows a pipeline intake incorporated in a storage dam.

Layout #4 shows a situation where there is a lake suitable for a storage reservoir some way up the stream. A dam can be built at the lake to store water, which can be released down the stream during dry periods.

Layout #5 and Layout #6 show the layout of a low head plant where there is less than 10 m gross head. Notice that there is no pipeline or dam. Layout #5 shows the weir, intake and powerhouse combined into one structure. Layout #6 shows a power canal between the intake and powerhouse.

Many aspects of a low head plant are different from those of a higher head plant (head greater than 20 m): flows are higher, the turbine is larger, no pipeline is used. For these reasons low head plants are discussed separately in Chapter 8.

1.5.3 Structures

The structures of a hydro project are described in detail in this section. Guidelines for selecting sites for these structures are given in Chapter 2, Section 2.6. Suggestions are given below for estimating dimensions for some of the structures. This will enable you, in Section 1.8.1, to estimate the cost of your project.

Storage Dam

A storage dam, normally 3 m to 10 m high and constructed of earth or rock, should be designed by an engineer.

There are many different designs for earth and rock dams. A typical earth-fill dam, as shown in Figure 1.6, has a central section constructed of low permeable material supported on either side by higher permeable material. The material has to be carefully compacted in thin layers as it is built.

The pipe through the dam could continue to the turbine, or could discharge into the stream or a canal at the downstream side of the dam. There would be a valve at the upstream end of the pipe.

A spillway would be built into the dam to allow high flows to pass without overtopping the dam. The crest of the spillway would be lower than the top of the dam.

Intake Weir

Normally you would need to build a low weir (1 m to 2 m high) across the stream at the intake to the pipeline, to form a headpond (see Figure 1.6). This headpond would:

(a) ensure a high enough water level to keep water always above the top of the pipe.

(b) allow some of the sediment in the stream to settle out before entering the sediment trap,

(c) allow an ice sheet to form, giving some protection against water freezing in the pipeline, and

(d) provide pondage (water storage) to compensate for one or two-day water shortages.

Water would flow over the weir most of the time.

While there are many ways to build a weir, concrete, rock-filled gabion and rockfilled timber-crib structures are the most common for small hydro projects (see Figure 1.6).

If the weir is built across a narrow part of the stream and founded on bedrock, a concrete structure would probably be the most economical. In other cases a concrete structure would probably be the most expensive, but it would also last the longest without maintenance.

A gabion is a wire-mesh box filled with rock. Assuming there is a good supply of rock at the site, only the wire-mesh need be bought and transported to the site. Gabions are not waterproof, so an impervious polyethylene membrane or asphalt sheeting would be laid on the upstream side. Fill would be placed on the upstream side to protect the membrane. A reinforced concrete cap should be placed on the top of the gabions to protect them from the water and debris passing over the weir.

A rock-filled timber-crib dam is often the least costly weir to build, especially if rock is,available at the site and timber can be cut nearby.- Timber or logs are placed in alternate directions and spiked where they cross (see Figure 1.6). The bottom logs should be anchored to the foundations, and the space between the logs should be filled with rock. Wooden sheathing is attached to the upstream face and the crest, and often sheathing is also placed on the downstream face. Low permeability fill should be placed upstream to reduce seepage through the dam and foundations.

Water in the headpond must be kept at a certain height (called submergence) above the top of the pipe, to prevent air entering the pipe. Values of submergence are given below:

Pipe Diameter Submergence

less than 600 mm = 1.0 m

600 - 1200 mm  = 1.5 m

(Pipe diameter is discussed in detail in the "Pipeline" section, which follows.)

The crest of the weir should be above the top of the pipe by an amount equal to 0.5 m plus submergence.


The intake to the pipeline can be a separate structure, part of the intake weir, or part of the storage dam. There are many types of intake. The sketch in Figure 1.6 shows the components of a typical intake.

To prevent sediment from flowing into the turbine, a sediment trap can be built upstream of the intake structure or within the structure; or immediately downstream, as a separate self-flushing tank built into the pipe.

A trashrack prevents floating debris from entering the pipe. Trashracks must be cleaned regularly.

Stop-logs or a valve should be provided to shut off the flow from the pipeline during maintenance or repair of the pipe, or closure of the turbine during cold weather. An air vent should be placed just downstream of the valve to prevent the pipeline collapsing when it is emptied with the valve closed.

The top of the intake should be at least 0.5 m below the top of the weir.


To help you determine the preliminary arrangement and cost estimate of your project, you also need to decide on pipe diameter, pipe material, above-ground or underground pipe location, pipe support and anchore blocks.

You need to know the diameter of the pipeline to estimate its cost in Section 1.8.1. The diameter can be read from the graph in Figure 1.7, by using your value of Qmin (from Section 1.4.1, or from Table 1.3) on the horizontal axis, then reading the diameter on the vertical axis.

Example: Your Values

pipe flow =Qmin.....................................200 L/s ...................................L/s

or 0.20 m3/s ....................................M3/s

Pipe Diameter D................................... 410 mm

Write your value of pipe diameter in Table 1.3 for later reference.

Steel, cast iron, aluminum, polyethylene and PVC are materials used for small hydro pipelines and penstocks. Generally, for the higher head sites in B.C. (above 20 m head) polyethylene or PVC are used. When the head is greater than about 60 m, use of steel at the lower end (higher head) of the pipeline is more economical.

PVC pipe should be buried for protection from the sun's ultraviolet rays and polyethylene and cast iron pipes should be buried for potection against damage from falling trees or rocks, or from logging machinery. If air temperatures normally stay below -5C for more than five days at a time, the pipeline should be buried or insulated.

Supports must be provided for rigid pipes such as steel, cast iron, or aluminum, but the more flexible polyethylene can be laid directly on the ground or on wooden supports. Anchor blocks should be placed around the bends of all types of pipes. A thrust block should be built at the lower end of the pipeline, just upstream of the powerhouse.


The size of the powerhouse is determined by the type and size of the turbine installed. Figure 1.6 shows typical layouts for Pelton and Francis turbines. A low head plant (less than 10 m head) looks quite different: See Chapter 5 for details.

The substructure -- which consists of the pedestal of the turbine and generator, the draft-tube or discharge pit, and the floor slab - should be made of concrete. The superstructure -which is above the floor and protects the machinery and electrical controls from rain, heat, cold and vandalism -- can be made of wood frame, metal frame, concrete block, log or self supporting metal panels. Make sure that the superstructure allows the turbine and generator to be installed and removed for repair.


The tailrace is a channel which leads the water from the turbine back into the stream, a lake or the sea. It should prevent the water from damaging any structure or the landscape. 

1.5.4 Low, Medium and High Head

Low, medium and high head are terms used to indicate the most suitable type of turbine for the project. The various types of turbines listed in the table below are described in Section 4, "Turbines".

- Low Head up to 10 m Use: Cross-flow, axial-flow or propeller turbine

- Medium Head 10 m to 200 m Use: Cross-flow, Francis, Pelton or Turgo turbine

- High Head 200 m to 1000 m Use: Pelton, Turgo-impulse or Francis turbine

1.5.5 Existing Dams

If there is already a dam on a stream nearby, you should consider using it. First, find out who owns it, then try to assess what repairs would have to be done if you were to use it as an intake dam or a small storage dam. Could you incorporate in the dam an intake for a pipeline? You should have an engineer check the dam before further developing your plans for its use. You should also check with Water Management Branch as a changed use could require the dam to be upgraded.

1.5.6 Transmission Line

If your load (i.e. house, bunkhouse, sawmill, etc.) is more than 100 m from your powerhouse, you will need a transmission line, and probably step-up and step-down transformers. Transmission lines are expensive ($17,000/km or more) so always plan to put the powerhouse as close as possible to your load; however, they are less expensive than pipelines so a trade off must be made.


Now that you have measured, or estimated, the lowest expected flow (Qmin) and gross head (Hg), you can calculate the power and energy available from the stream. To calculate power, use the nomograph in Figure 1.3, or the power Equation 1-3, as explained in Section 1.6.1.   The calculation of energy is explained in Section 1.6.4.

1.6.1 Firm Power

Firm Power is the power that is always available from the stream, even at times of lowest flow and lowest head. To calculate firm power you use the lowest expected flow in the stream (Qmin) and the gross head (Hg). In the case of a low head plant (less than about 10 m) in which the forebay level varies, the gross head should be measured to the minimum forebay level.

Using these new symbols for Q and H, the power equation (1-2)

becomes:      FIRM POWER (Pfirm) = Qmin x Hg x 5.9 kW (1-3)

Remember, in this equation, the overall plant efficiency is assumed to be 60 percent because of head loss in the pipeline, and turbine and generator efficiencies. The nomograph in Figure 1.3 was drawn from this equation.

With the values of Qmin and Hg that you have written into Table 1.3, use the nomograph in Figure 1.3 to calculate the firm power Pfirm.


Example Your Values

On the nomograph enter:

Qmin 200 1/s 1/8

Hg 30 m m

From the nomograph:

Pfirm 35 kW kW

Write your Pfirm value - the firm power available from the stream into Table 1.3.

1.6.2 Design Capacity of Hydro Plant

The design capacity (or installed capacity) of your hydro plant is the maximum power it can produce. For this stage in the planning process, assume that the design capacity is made equal to the maximum load, using some load management, as discussed in section 1.2.2. Also, assume that the plant can produce maximum output -equal to the maximum controlled load -- when the flow in the stream is at its lowest. This means that the plant will be able to produce all the power you need, even during dry periods.

These assumptions are summarized:

Design capacity of plant (kW) = Maximum load (kW) = Firm power (kW)

This is a simplifying assumption that is satisfactory for the calculations in Chapter 1, a more detailed analysis is made in later chapters.

1.6.3 Storage Reservoir

If your hydro plant cannot produce enough power to meet your peak load when the streamflow is low, you can:

(a) build a dam and create a storage reservoir, or

(b) Use a diesel generator or other source of power during low flow periods.

The stream might dry up completely in the summer or in the winter after several weeks of very cold weather. Even with a storage reservoir or an alternative source of power for these short no-flow periods, a hydro project might still be economic.

Decide if you want to build a storage dam or use an alternative source of power. If you already have a diesel generator, you might choose to use that. If there is a lake upstream of your planned pipeline intake, you might choose to build a small dam at the outlet of the lake to control storage.

You do not have enough information yet to calculate the volume of storage you require, or the height of the dam. How to calculate these is described in Chapter 3. Until then, if you plan to build a dam, follow the guidelines in Section 1.8.1 for including an allowance for the cost of the dam.

1.6.4 Energy

Next, estimate the average annual energy that you will use from your hydro plant. You will need this in Section 1.8.2 to estimate your hydro energy cost (cents/kW.h). By comparing this cost with the cost of alternative sources of energy, such as a diesel generator or energy from a B.C. Hydro power line, you can decide if you wish to build the hydro project.

The amount of energy that you will use from your hydro plant will depend on:

(a) the design capacity of the plant, compared to the flow and head available in the stream, and

(b) the variations in your load (discussed in Section 1.2.1).

For each plant and stream, there is a specific set of conditions which has to be known before you can calculate accurately the average annual energy output.

At this stage you do not have enough data, and simplifications must be made.

If you wanted to generate constant power equal to your maximum load (assuming some degree of load management), the annual energy output would be:

B (annual) = Pdesign x 8760 kW.h (1-4)


E (annual) = Annual energy output (kW.h).

Pdesign = Firm power (kW) calculated in Section 1.6.1. 8760 = Number of hours in a year.

However, your load will not be constant (as discussed in Section 1.2.1) and the design capacity of the plant (Pdesign) would probably be larger than your maximum load, to include the possibility of increased loads in the future. You will also have to shut down the plant for maintenance. For these reasons, your actual annual energy output will be less than indicated by Equation (1-4). To account for this, a Plant Factor (or Capacity Factor) is used:

Plant Factor (PF) Average power generated during year Plant design capacity (Pdesign)

The average annual energy output would then be:

E (annual) = Pdesign x PF x 8760 kWh (1-5)

Plant factors describe the way in which a plant operates over a period of time, say, for several years.

For these preliminary estimates of average annual energy, use a plant factor of 80 percent. (A plant factor of 80 percent applies to a system with automatic load management. If you do not intend to use automatic load management, use a plant factor of 50 percent.)

Average annual energy is:

E (annual) = Pdesign x 0.8 x 8760 (1-6)

= Pdesign x 7000 kw.h


In the previous examples in Section 1.6.1 we calculated the Firm Power output of a stream to be 35 kW. Assume that the plant is designed to produce maximum power equal to this Firm Power from the stream.

Using Equation (1-6), the average annual energy used is:

E (annual) = 35 x 7000 kW.h

= 245,000 kW.h

1.7....... ADVISORS (Back)

Turbine manufacturers, pipe suppliers, contractors and electricians will give you free advice. owners of small hydro plants, particularly those who have built their own, will usually be pleased to tell you about their experiences and offer advice.

1.7.1 Engineers

You can hire an engineer to do part or all of the design of the project. An engineer can

(a) advise on specific problems such as, safety of the existing dam you might want to use; foundations for a dam, pipeline supports or powerhouse; type of electrical or mechanical equipment;

(b) design certain structures such as a dam, pipeline supports, an electrical load control panel, or a turbine;

(c) make a preliminary study to confirm the feasibility of the project;

(d) prepare a feasibility report for a bank or investor from whom you want to borrow money; or

(e) design and supervise the construction of the project.

Guidelines on the cost of these services are given in Section 1.8.1, "Engineering Costs".

Before you hire an engineer, contractor or any other professional person, ask for an estimate of the cost of services and expenses to be paid. Ask him to write down exactly what he will do and how long it will take. Make sure you understand what he said he would do, and that this is what you want. When he's finished the job and you want him to do more, or he suggests doing more, again, ask for an estimate on the additional work. In that way you are in control of your expenses and you will avoid unpleasant surprises when you receive his bill.

The decision to hire an engineer is yours, but there are typical situations under which you are advised to hire an engineer:

(a) Dam Design: If you need to build a storage dam, or if your intake dam is more than 1.5 metres high, an engineer should check the design and the foundations.

(b) Existing Dam: If you plan to use an existing dam to store water, an engineer should check the safety of the dam.

(c) Pipeline: If the head is greater than 30 m; if the length is longer than 300 m; or if the diameter is larger than 0.5 m an engineer should review your design for waterhammer, pipe strength, pipe supports and anchors. These limits are abribtrary and may not apply to all sites.

(d) Excavations: If you have to excavate into a steep or unstable looking side slope for an access road, pipeline or the powerhouse, an engineer should first check the stability of the slope.

(e) Safety If there are residences downstream of any part of the project and you will be changing the natural stream channel or leading water out of the natural channel in a canal or pipeline), an engineer should check the safety of the project.

1.8.......PROJECT COSTS (Back)

1.8.1 Capital Costs

Your project cost estimates will be very preliminary at this stage. You can use the cost curves in Figure 1-7 to 1-12 to find the cost of most of the components of your project.

You might want to buy used equipment or materials, such as:

- turbine
- pump - to be operated in reverse as a turbine
- generator
- other electrical equipment and wiring
- steel or plastic pipe

You can save 50 percent or more on the cost of new items. Ask turbine manufacturers if they have a used turbine or generator that would suit your project. Scrapyards and used equipment dealers are places to look for pumps, valves, electrical equipment, wire and pipe. Used equipment and materials are advertised in newspapers and trade journals and magazines.

No costs for used equipment are given in this manual -- you will have to estimate costs based on your own enquiries. Beware, there are no guarantees on used equipment or materials, so make sure you know what to look for to check that the equipment or materials are in good condition.

When you have estimated the cost of each component, write it into the Summary of Project Costs, near the end of this section.

Site Preparation

Timber and brush will probably have to be cleared at the site of the intake, along the pipeline, at the powerhouse and along the transmission line. The storage reservoir, if you need one will have to be cleared before you flood the area. A cat track or access road might have to be built to get construction materials and equipment to the intake, pipeline or powerhouse.

The cost of the work depends on the conditions at the site, therefore no cost curves are given to help you make an estimate. You could ask a local contractor, logger or cat owner for an approximate price.

Remember to include a cost -- even if it is only a guess -- for site preparation in your project cost estimate.

Storage Dam

You decided in Section 1.6.3 whether or not you needed a storage dam. At this stage you cannot make a reliable estimate of the cost of the dam. However, if you need to build a dam, include a cost for it in the Summary of Project Costs to remind yourselt that a dam could be a major part of the project cost. use the larger of the following alternative costs:

(a) twice the cost of the intake weir (to be estimated next), or

(b) ten percent of the total civil, mechanical and electrical costs (to be calculated in the Summary of Project Costs at the end of this section).

Intake weir

The intake weir could be built of concrete, rock gabions or rock-filled timber crib. A concrete dam would probably be the most expensive, a rock-filled dam the least expensive. Cost curves for concrete and gabion weirs only have been given in Figure 1.8. If you plan to build a timber-crib dam, you can make your own cost estimate or use the cost curve for the gabion weir, knowing that you are probably over estimating the cost of a timber-crib weir.

The curves in Figure 1.8 are for work done by a building contractor who pays union wages. Costs can be as low as 60 percent of the costs shown in Figure 1.8 if you do not hire a contractor and if the following conditions apply:

(a) you do most of the work yourself or pay wages at $12 per hour. and

(b) for the concrete dam you mix concrete at the site, or

(c) for the gabion dam you do not have to pay for delivery of rocks for the gabions because there are rocks close to the site.

To find the cost of the weir using Figure 1.8:

(a) decide on the type of weir you will build,

(b) decide on the height of the weir

(c) select the height on the vertical axis, then read off the cost per metre of weir on the horizontal axis,

(d) estimate the length of weir, and

(e) calculate the cost using the formula cost of weir = cost/m x length (m).


Concrete weir 1.5 m high, 6 m long, built by contractor.

Using Figure 1-8:

Example Your Values

Weir height ..................................... 1.5m .....................................................m

Weir Length .....................................6.0m ......................................................m

Cost per length of weir (b) .. 210 $/m ..................................................$/M

Cost of weir (a x b)...........................1260 $ .......................................................$

Pipeline Intake

In Figure 1.9 cost curves are shown for a free-standing intake for a gabion or rock-filled timber weir, and for an intake for a concrete weir where the backwall of the intake would be part of the concrete dam.

To find the cost of the intake using Figure 1.9

(a) select the pipeline diameter,

(b) find the submergence required for this pipe diameter, using the bottom graph,

(c) estimate the actual height of the intake (the headpond behind the intake weir might be deeper than the minimum height required in Item 2 above),

(d) find the cost of the intake for the correct pipeline diameter, using the top graph, and

(e) add the cost of the trashrack from the middle graph.


Pipe diameter (Section 1.5.3. "Pipeline") D = 410 mm

Submergence required (bottom graph Figure 1.9) = 1.0 m

Height of intake = height of weir (1.5 m) + 0.5 m = 2.0 m

Cost of intake (using 500 mm pipe diameter on Figure 1.9) = $670

Cost of trashrack for 400 mm pipe (middle graph figure 1.9) $180

Total Cost of Intake $850


Before you can calculate the cost of the pipeline, you must first make a sketch of the pipeline route (as shown in Sketch (A) in Figure 1.10) and mark a few ground elevations and lengths along the pipeline to define the profile. For example, EL. 10 m, EL. 20 m, EL. 30 m; and Ll, L2, L3' This will enable you to estimate the head on various sections of the pipeline, (as shown in Sketch (B)) and to choose the correct cost for each section: this applies to polyethylene plastic pipes only.

In the table on Figure 1.10, Column #1 shows a Pipe Classification which corres nds to a range of Gross Heads (or pressure heads) in Column #2. Each classification of pipe can withstand a pressure head equal to the maximum in the range in Column #2, for example, "A" pipe can withstand a gross head up to 31.6 m, and "B" pipe a gross head of 42.2 m. This classification is for polyethylene pipe only; steel pipe is strong enough to withstand a gross head in excess of 150 m.

For costing polyethylene pipe, mark off the maximum gross head in each classification on your sketch of the pipeline starting from the intake, as in Sketch (B), Figure 1.10. Then measure the length of each classification of pipe, for example LA, LB, LC in Sketch (B).

For each classification, read from the table on Figure 1.10 the cost per metre of pipe under the appropriate pipe diameter; multiply that unit cost by the length for that classification to give the cost of that section of pipe.


Pipe diameter - 410 mm inside diameter. Assume a nominal outside diameter of 45U mm.

Draw a table as shown below. The lengths LA, LB etc. are taken from your sketch, similar to Figure 1.10, Sketch (B). The unit costs of pipe per metre are taken from the table on Figure 1.10. We will assume a 500 mm pipe in this example, but you could interpolate the cost for a 450 mm diameter pipe between the costs for pipes of 315 mm and 500 im-n.

Pipe Length Unit Cost Cost of Section

Classification m $/m $

A LA = 50 155 7750

B LB = 10 205 2050

C LC = 20 265 5300

D LD = 13 324 4212

E LE = 13 518 6734

F LF = 10 518 5180

Total Cost of Pipeline $31,226

Note that the unit costs of 500 mm diameter pipe in Classes E and F are below the heavy line in the table, indicating that they are steel pipe. A polyethylene pipe of that diameter cannot withstand a gross head greater than 70.3 m (classification D).

Add the cost of a valve, from the table on Figure 1.10, to get the total cost of the pipeline.


Figure 1.11 shows cost curves for the powerhouse sub-structure (concrete foundations and floor) and superstructure (wood or prefabricated metal).

For the sub-structure cost you need the rated output of your hydro plant in kW, which you should already have estimated. Use the top graph on Figure 1.11 to find the sub-structure cost.

The superstructure floor area depends on the physical dimensions of the turbine and generator. The size is related to the penstock diameter. Use the bottom graph on Figure 1.11 to find the cost of the superstructure for the penstock size and type of turbine you have selected.

Add the costs of the sub-structure and superstructure to get the total powerhouse cost.

Turbine, Generator and Electrical Equipment

Use Figure 1.12 to estimate the cost of the turbine, generator and electrical equipment in the powerhouse. You need to know the gross head (from Section 1.4.2) and the energy output hydro plant in kW. To find the cost of the equipment, find the head on the vertical axis, draw a line horizontally to intersect the diagonal line with the correct range of plant output (you can interpolate between these lines), then draw a vertical line down to the horizontal axis. Read the cost (in $/kW) of the equipment and multiply by the plant output in kW.

The cost lines on Figure 1.12 were derived from manufacturers prices and show average costs. They should be used only for initial estimates, since the prices you actually pay for the turbine, generator and other electrical equipment could be as much as 40 percent less than the costs given on Figure 1.12. You will generally get the quality you pay for: low-priced turbines will probably be made of cheaper materials and will probably require more repair than higher-priced turbines.

A very small turbine-generator unit (1.0 - 1.5 kw) with batteries and a battery-charger might be suitable for lighting and a few appliances in a small, well-insulated house or summer cabin. The cost of turbine, generator, batteries, and inverter would be about

1.0 kW $ 9000

1.5 kW $13000

Remember, if you will be converting from existing oil or propane heating to electric heating, there will be additional costs for electric heaters and wiring at your house, lodge, camp, or mill. These additional costs are not covered in this manual.

Transmission Lines and Cables

Use the table below to estimate the cost of transmission lines or cables running from the hydro plant to the load. Refer to Chapter 4 for a discussion of voltages and different types and sizes of cable you should use.

Wood Pole Transmission Line

3-phase, 2.4 kV, up to 250 kW: $17000/km

High Voltage Buried Cable

single-phase, up to 85 kW: $15000/km

Tailrace Channel

The tailrace channel is usually a minor cost item, however, a cost figure should be included in the estimate. A cost curve cannot be prepared for the tailrace channel because the channel dimensions depend entirely on the site. Make your own estimate for this item or ask for an estimate from the person who advised you on the clearing and access costs.


Contingencies are unexpected costs.

The cost curves in Figure 1.8 to 1.12 were drawn using cost estimates from manufacturers, suppliers and contractors, and using costs of projects recently built. However, the cost of your project will probably be more than you have estimated so far: that's the way things usually turn out. Some reasons for this:

1. The project you build might be more complicated than the one you have planned.

2. The dimensions of the project you build might be larger than you have estimated.

3. The cost curves do not include every possible expense.

4. Unexpected problems will probably arise during construction.

5. Add more if the project has accessability problems.

To avoid surprises, be conservative. Add a contingency item to your cost estimate, as follows:

1. Add 15 percent if you think your project will be easy to build, and you think you have included everything.

2. Add 25 percent if you think your project might be more complicated than most, or if you think you might have underestimated some of the dimensions such as, length of penstock or transmission line.

Engineering Costs

You have probably decided whether or not you will hire an engineer. This section suggests costs to expect for engineering services.

Even if you want to do all the planning yourself, you should still provide for the cost of expert advice you might need unexpectedly.

If you do hire an engineer, here are some guidelines to help you estimate the costs. For advice on specific problems, or the design of certain structures, engineers normally charge hourly or daily rates for their services:

$30 to $70 per hour; $200 to $500 per day.

For a visit to the site, an engineer would expect to be paid, probably at a reduced rate, while he was travelling, and he would want to be paid for reasonable expenses. Generally, a self-employed engineer will charge less than a firm of engineers which has to cover higher overheads.

If you have to borrow money to build the project, the banks, or other investor, may ask for a feasibility study report to show:

(a) the availability of a site for your project,

(b) the availability of sufficient flow and head to produce the power and energy you need,

(c) an estimate of the costs of the project, and

(d) a simple financial analysis showing loan repayments and other facts the bank or investor might require.

For a feasibility study and report, expect to pay between a minimum of $2000 (that would be a nominal fee) and, $7000 to $15000 for a project of 50 kW to 250 kW.

For a feasibility study report, and the complete design and construction supervision of a project, expect to pay 5 to 15 percent of the project cost, or a minimum of $8000.

Remember, before you hire an engineer or other expert, ask for an estimate of the cost and a letter detailing exactly what the engineer will do for the money.

Summary of Project Costs

Make a list of all the costs that apply to your project.

Example Costs Your Project Costs

Clearing and Access $1000 ......................$

Storage Dam $0 ......................$

Intake $1300 .....................$

Pipeline $31900 .....................$

Turbine, Generator, Electrical Equipment $45500 .....................$

Powerhouse $10700 .....................$

Transmission Line $8000 ....................$

TOTAL COST OF STRUCTURES AND EQUIPMENT (a) $98400 ....................$

Engineering $7000 ....................$

Contingencies (15% of (a)) $15000 ....................$

TOTAL PROJECT COST $120,400 ....................$

Cost per kW

To check the cost of your project, compare its "Cost per kW" with other plants. To get the cost in $/kW, divide the total project cost by the design capacity of the plant (from Section 1.6.2).

Example Your Figures

Total Project Cost (from Summary of Project Costs) $120,400 ..................................$

Design Capacity (from Section 1.6.2) 35 kW ..............................kW

Cost per kW...............................3,440 $/kW ...........................$/kW

The cost per kW should be within the range of $2000 to $5000 per kW.

If your figure is around $2000 per kW you have a good project. If the figure is around $5000 per kW, you still might have a project that is cheaper than an alternative power source, such as diesel. You will know this when you have calculated the annual cost of your plant in Section 1.8.2.

Degree of Confidence in Project Cost Estimate

Only an approximation of the actual project cost can be expected at this stage in the planning process, when the structures have yet to be designed and the sites have yet to be carefully examined. Nevertheless, the actual project cost will probably be within 25 percent of your estimate.

1.8.2 Annual Costs

You should be aware of the annual cost of energy, including loan payments and maintenance and repair costs, of your hydro project. You might want to compare that cost with the cost of energy from a diesel generator or from a nearby transmission line.

Loan Payments

Decide how much you will have to borrow to cover the total project cost, then calculate your annual payments (capital and interest) using a Capital Cost Recovery Factor (CRF) from Table 1.2.


Assume you want to repay a loan in 10 years, and the interest rate is 10 percent.

Example Your Values

- Total Project Cost $120400 $..............................

- Equity Available for Project $ 30400 $..............................

- Loan Required (a) $ 90000 $..............................

From Table 1.2:

For: n 10 years ........................years

I =10% ...............................%

Find: CRF 0.163 .................................

Annual Loan Payment:

(CRF) x (a) 0.163 x 90000 ........................X......................

=....... $14,670 $...............................................

Maintenance and Repair Costs

Maintenance and repair costs include maintaining the intake, dam, pipeline, powerhouse and the mechanical and electrical equipment. The maintenance work that should be done is discussed in Chapter 3. However, for this initial estimate of annual costs, use 2% of the Total Project Cost, or $2000 minimum annual maintenance cost.

Total Annual Costs

Add the annual loan payments and the annual maintenance and repair costs to get the total annual cost. Divide this by the estimated annual energy output (from Section 1.6.4) to get the cost per kW.h.


Example Your Values

- Annual Loan Payment $14,670 ...........$

- Annual Maintenance & Repair Costs $ 2400 ...........$

-Total Annual Costs (a) $17,070 ...........$Annual Energy Output (from section 1.6.4) (b) 245000 kW.h kW.h

- Cost per kW.h = (a) x 100/(b) = 7.0cents/kW.h cents/kW.h

1.9 ..........Project Worth (Back)

1.10 ..........Continued Planning (Back)

1.11 ..........Project Data Summary (Back)



2.1 ..........Introduction

2.2 ..........Topographic Maps

2.3 ..........Streamflow Data

2.4 ..........Streamflow Measurement

2.5 ..........Water Quality

2.6 ..........Site Selection for Project Structure

2.7 ..........Head Measurement

2.8 ..........Pipeline Length

2.9 ..........Project Site Topography

2.10 ..........Environmental Aspects


Maps, Air Photos, Streamflow and Climate Data


Installing a Staff Gauge and Weir to Measure Streamflow


3.1 ..........Introduction

3.2 ..........Power and Energy Requirements

3.3 ..........Load Planning and Management

3.4 ..........Power and Energy Availability

3.5 ..........Small Hydro Plant Sizing

3.6 ..........Preliminary Arrangement of Structures and Selection of Equipment

3.7 ..........Project Costs

3.8 ..........Preliminary Assessment of Feasibility

3.9 ..........Continued Planning


Flow Duration Curves


Calculating Reservoir Storage


Information from Turbine-Generator Manufacturers and Suppliers



4.1 ..........Dams

4.2 ..........Intake Structures

4.3 ..........Diversions

4.4 ..........Maintenance of Dams and Intakes

4.5 ..........Factors affecting costs and construction

4.6 ..........Penstock Design

4.7 ..........Characteristics of Pipes

4.8 ..........Plastic Penstocks

4.9 ..........Steel Penstocks

4.10 ..........Forces and Trust Blocking

4.11 ..........Installation of Penstocks

4.12 ..........Water Hammer

4.13 ..........Valves

4.14 ..........Canals, Flumes and Lines Channels

4.15 ..........Turbines

4.16 ..........Water Control to Turbine

4.17 ..........Mechanical Governors

4.18 ..........Electronic Load Control Governors

4.19 ..........Tailwater

4.20 ..........Draft Tubes

4.21 ..........Pumps as Turbines

4.22 ..........Generators

4.23 ..........Mechanical Power Transmission

4.24 ..........Induction Generators

4.25 ..........Synchronizing

4.26 ..........Power Factor

4.27 ..........Electrical Transmission

4.28 ..........Transformers

4.29 ..........Single and Three Phase Systems

4.30 ..........Automatic Emergency Shutdown

4.31 ..........Remote Alarms

4.32 ..........D.C. Systems

4.33 ..........Electrical Inspection and Codes

4.34 ..........Powerhouse Design

4.35 ..........Technical Requirements for Grid Connected Plants

4.36 ..........Consultants, Suppliers and Contractors


5.1 ..........Introduction

5.2 ..........Local Involvement

5.3 ..........Provincial Involvement

5.4 ..........Federal Government

5.5 ..........Recommendations APPENDIX


6.1 ..........Introduction

6.2 ..........Valuation of Energy

6.3 ..........Alternative Energy Costs

6.4 ..........Detailed Economic Assessment

6.5 ..........Financing Alternatives


7.1 ..........General

7.2 ..........Project Scheduling

7.3 ..........Project Construction

7.4 ..........Practical Notes on Building a Small Hydro Plant

7.5 ..........Practical Notes on Dealing With a Contractor

7.6 ..........Conclusions


8.1 ..........Introduction

8.2 ..........Water Wheels

8.3 ..........Modern Turbine Types

8.4 ..........Package Visits

8.5 ..........Variable Heads


9.1 .......... Cause and Effect

9.2 ..........Climate

9.3 ..........Frost

9.4 ..........Cold Weather

9.5 ..........Ice

9.7 ..........The Dam or Diversion Structure

9.8 ..........Intake Structure

9.9 ..........Canal

9.10 ..........Penstocks

9.11 ..........Powerhouse

9.12 ..........Transmission Lines

9.13 ..........Access

9.14 ..........Conclusion


10.1 ..........Introduction

10.2 ..........Rationale for Utility Regulation

10.3 ..........Relevant Registration

10.4 ..........Regulatory Alternatives

10.5 ..........Application Procedure

10.6 ..........Organizational Structure and Accounting Procedures

10.7 ..........Implications to Organizing and Operating as a Public Utility


A ..........Case Study Examples

B ..........Permit Applications and Agency Addresses

C ..........Small Hydro Suppliers and Contractors

D ..........Small Hydro Consultants

E ..........Small Hydro Computer Programs

F ..........Definitions

G ..........Sources of Financing

H ..........References

Ron Williams


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