Afghan Energy, Chemical & Mining Industries
resource for Renewable Energies, Irrigation & Sustainable Industries.

Solar

Afghanistan solar radiation acquisition data


all in image jpeg file

Maps

  • Map of Meteorological Stations and Elevation (ZIP 272 KB)

Concentrating Solar Power (CSP)

10-km Resolution Annual Maps (Direct)
Low-Res (JPG 104 KB) | High-Res (ZIP 330 KB)

40-km Resolution Annual Maps (Direct)
Low-Res (JPG 176 KB) | High-Res (ZIP 314 KB)

10-km Seasonal Maps (Direct):

40-km Seasonal Maps (Direct):

Photovoltaic (PV)

10-km Resolution Annual Maps:

40-km Resolution Annual Maps:

10-km Seasonal Maps (Latitude tilt):

40-km Seasonal Maps (Latitude tilt):

Kabul Yearly chart

Countrywide data files download Here (zipped 6Mb)

Afghanistan / Pakistan Map solar radiation acquisition data


Spring data countrywide at 10km (6Mb pdf)

Solar energy can be captured by eg. solar panels made from silicon based polysilicon PV cells (PolyVoltaic PV cells - a device that converts light energy into electrical energy) arranged as solar Panels or with other materials such as CIGS (copper indium gallium selenide), which currently is a new technology produced as panels or printed on various materials. Solar energy can also be also produced through CSV (Concentrated Solar Power) using mirrors and harnessing the thermal radiation .

The efficiencies of normal silicon based panels range from 14% to 18% and the practical limit most say is around 25%. New CIGS technology panels are about 6% efficient but manufacturers are trying for 10% efficiencies, nevertheless they are cheaper to manufacture because the base material to make them is cheaper in relation to polysilicon and the process to produce them via a similar method to that of TFT panels, is simpler.

Polysilicon in the past few years has decreased in price to around $40-60 on long contracts is mainly causing the price of silicon based panels to hover around $2/Wp wholesale. The spot price of polysilicon is around $200/kg. Thin-film panels made from cadmium telluride are a more efficient option as compared with CIGS. Cadmium telluride isn't perfect either, as it has to be used on glass, and therefore is non-flexible. CdTe allows the use of 100 times less material than crystalline silicon, and it can be 100 times less pure. Present modules will run about 10% efficiency. With projected manufacturing costs running three to four times lower with CDTE thin film technology, cells should be competitive against other solar cells and fossil fuels. Future gains in CdTe efficiency, which theoretically could be better than that of silicon, and therefore drive the costs even lower.

Another major cost factor associated with the price of Solar panels is the plant equipment required to manufacture them. A 20MW amorphous silicon plant in the U.S. can cost $60 million in equipment and another $40 million in yearly expenses. The cost of ownership is as high as $2.50 to $3.00 per watt. Currently, the Chinese are advertising sales of amorphous silicon completed solar panels for 1.63 Euros or $2.20 per watt, less than the production cost in the U.S." The Information Network

Although amorphous silicon panels (producing the same energy output) cost about $2 wholesale, Cadmium telluride costs $1.40 per watt to produce; CIGS panels, about $2.10. Factor in marketing and distribution costs and "finished" U.S. made thin-solar panels are easily $3.50 per watt - 40% more expensive than their Chinese iterations. Thin-film solar panels are cheaper than their predecessor technologies (traditional crystalline silicon costs $2.90 per watt) even though amorphous solar cells are less efficient than CT and CIGS.

Because of the price of Polysilicon Some solar-cell manufacturers are trying to compensate for short supplies by using thinner crystalline silicon wafers in their solar cells. However, crystalline silicon also has a low absorptivity, which means photons can pass through a fair bit of material before finally being absorbed. Therefore, the silicon wafer must be relatively thick, approximately 100-300 micrometers.

Like for like solar panel comparison 2000 report



The table also indicates the energy production per square metre and the performance ratio. The performance ratio is a measure for the real energy production in relation to the theoretical maximum energy production, independent of the amount of solar irradiation.

Manufacturer
 
DC yield
kWh/kWp
AC yield
kWh/kWp
AC yield
kWh/m2
Performance
ratio
UniSolar -(a-Si) 1164 1038 64 0.95
Free Energy -(a-Si) 1084 961 40 0.88
BP Solarex -(a-Si) 1001 888 47 0.81
BP Solarex -(mono-cSi) 977 868 117 0.80
ASE - (EFG-Si) 966 857 104 0.79
Kyocera -(multi-cSi) 964 856 105 0.79
Siemens -(mono-cSi) 963 855 110 0.79
Shell Solar (multi-cSi) 961 853 90 0.78
Siemens (CIS) 930 824 67 0.76

The table shows that amorphous silicon modules can be expected to produce more energy for the same amount of installed nominal peak-power. The expected annual energy production of 1 kilo-Watt-peak of FEE panels is over 12% higher than that of 1 kWp of the average crystalline silicon panels. European Panel size calculator

Solar power Calculations

5 Houses: Power needed during the day = 50400Wh = 50,4 KWh.
Average radiation in Mazar Afghanistan is 5320 Wh/m/d on an average of 6 hours/day
Solar panels needed to produce 50,4 KWh.
We use panels: Polycrystalline 240Wp / 30.66-36.84V DC out I max: 7.83 Amps.
Dimensions: netto: 1370x940 mm = 1,28 M2
240Wp/1,28 = 187,5 Wp per m2 at a radiation of 1000 W/m2.
Radiation in Mazar Afghanistan = 5320 W/m/d with average sun say 6 hours/day this will be 5320W/md / 6 h/d = 886 Wh/m radiation
So power production per m2 = 187,5Wp x 866Wh/m/1000W/m = 187,5 x 0.866 = 162 Wp h.
Power production must be 504000Wp h/162 Wp h/m = 3111 m solar panel needed.
240Wp = 1,28 m2.
3111/1,28 = 39,47 panels >> 40 solar panels of 240Wp = 9600Wp total.
Suggested already to place 10.000 Wp.
Material needed:
We calculate with 48V battery bank:
40 pcs solar panels 240Wp.
300 mtr PV solar 4 mm2 cables.
20 male Tyco PV cable splitters
20 female Tyco PV cable splitters
5 pcs Solar battery charger 50Amp. 48V-50 Amp. Each battery charger 8
pcs 240Wp panels (4 x parallel / 2 x pcs in serial)
Set cables to connect the solar chargers to the batteries
64 pcs AWG Deep cycle batteries 12V-150AH
Battery bank 48 V 4 pcs in serial 12V-150Ah.
Per bank 48 x 150AH = 7200Wp.
Power backup needed for the night is 22900 Wh. When you take this power away from the batteries they may not dis-charge more than 20%.
Needed battery bank capacity is 22900 /20%x100% = 114500 Wh/7200 = 15,9 = 16 banks of 4 pcs 12V-150AH = total: 64 pcs batteries.
Set cables to connect all the batteries.
3 pcs DC to AC sine wave inverters Controller. Incl AC charger. MPPT
AC outL: 220V/380V
50 Hz. Continue power 3 x 3000Wp en short surge power max 3 x 6000Wp.
Set cable to connect the DC Ac inverters to the battery bank.
and for a Garage unit.
Power needed during the day = 16100Wh = 16.1 KWh.
Average radiation in Mazar Afghanistan is 5320 WH/m2/d
Solar panels needed to produce 16,1 KWh.
We use panels: Polycrystalline 240Wp / 30.66-36.84V DC out I max: 7.83 Amps.
Dimensions: netto: 1370x940 mm = 1,28 M2
240Wp/1,28 = 187,5 Wp per m2 at a radiation of 1000 W/m2.
Radiation in Mazar Afghanistan = 5320 W/m2
So power production per m2 = 187,5Wp x 5320/1000 = 187,5 x 5,32 = 997,5 Wp / m2.
Power production must be 16100Wp/997,5 = 16,14 M2 solar panel needed.
240Wp = 1,28 m2.
16,14/1,28 = 12,6 panels >> 14 solar panels of 240Wp = 3360 Wp total.
Suggested already to place 3.000 Wp.
Material needed:
We calculate with 48V battery bank:
14 pcs solar panels 240Wp.
100 mtr PV solar 4 mm2 cables.
7 male Tyco PV cable splitters
7 female Tyco PV cable splitters
2 pcs Solar battery charger EPIP-602 50 Amp. 48V-50 Amp.
Each battery charger: A: 8 panels ( 4x parallel of 2 pcs in serial) B: 6 pcs 240Wp panels (3 x parallel / 2 x pcs in serial)
Set cables to connect the solar chargers to the batteries 16 pcs AWG Deep cycle batteries 12V-150AH
Battery bank 48 V 4 pcs in serial 12V-150Ah.
Per bank 48 x 150AH = 7200Wp.
Power backup needed for the night is 6125 Wh. When you take this power away from the batteries they may not dis-charge more than 20%.
Needed battery bank capacity is 6125 /20%x100% = 30.625 Wh/7200 = 4 = 4 banks of 4 pcs 12V-150AH = total: 16 pcs batteries.
Set cables to connect all the batteries.
1 pcs DC to AC sine wave inverters Tye PM-3000SI. Incl AC charger.
Power master inverter s 48V 3000 Watt each. AC outL: 220V/380V
50 Hz. Continue power 3 x 3000Wp en short surge power max 3 x 6000Wp.
Set cable to connect the DC Ac inverters to the battery bank.

Solar angle calculator http://www.solarelectricityhandbook.com/solar-angle-calculator.html

Balkh
Optimum Tilt of Solar Panels by Month
Figures shown in degrees from vertical
Mar
Jan Feb Apr May Jun
37 45 53 61 69 76
Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
69 61 53 45 37 30
Winter
30 angle
Spring/Autumn
53 angle
Summer
76 angle
Notes:
On the 21st December, the sun will rise 72 east of due south and set 72 west of due south.
On the 21st March/21st September, the sun will rise 91 east of due south and set 91 west of due south.
On the 21st June, the sun will rise 110 east of due south and set 110 west of due south.
For Solar Irradiance
(For best year-round performance)
Solar irradiance calculator http://www.solarelectricityhandbook.com/solar-irradiance.html

Expresses in KWh/day/m2

Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun
3.18 3.73 4.21 5.01 5.50 5.73
Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
5.68 5.50 5.36 4.89 3.84 3.00

Lorenz Solar submermisable pumps https://www.lorentz.de/en/products/submersible-solar-pumps/ps-hr.html
Robust and up to 450m The LORENTZ PS range of DC powered helical rotor pumps have been designed specifically to pump water efficiently using solar power. The helical rotor pump is simple, efficient and reliable, pumping water with very low levels of solar power from up to 450 m below the ground

 

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